Population in India 2011

Indian Population 2011 – Highlights

Population: As per the Provisional Population Totals of Census 2011, the total population of
India was 1210.2 million. Of this, the rural population stands at 833.1 million and the urban
population 377.1 million. In absolute numbers, the rural population has increased by 90.47
million and the urban population by 91.00 million in the last decade. Uttar Pradesh has the
largest rural population of 155.11 million (18.62% of the country’s rural population) whereas
Maharashtra has the highest urban population of 50.83 million (13.48% of country’s urban
population) in the country.

Growth Rate: The growth rate of population for India in the last decade was 17.64%. The growth
rate of population in rural and urban areas was 12.18% and 31.80% respectively. Bihar (23.90%)
exhibited the highest decadal growth rate in rural population.

Proportion of Population: In percentage terms, the rural population formed 68.84% of the total
population with the urban population constituting 31.16% (increase of 3.35%). Himachal
Pradesh (89.96%) has the largest proportion of rural population, while Delhi (97.50%) has the
highest proportion of urban population. The EAG States have a lower percentage of urban
population (21.13%) in comparison to non EAG States (39.66%).

Sex Ratio: The Sex Ratio in the country which was 933 in 2001 has risen by 7 points to 940 in
2011. The increase in rural areas has been 1 point from 946 to 947. The same in urban areas has
been 26 points from 900 to 926. Kerala has the highest sex ratio in total (1084), rural (1077) and
urban (1091). In rural, Chandigarh (691) and in urban, Daman & Diu (550) show the lowest sex
ratio in the country respectively. Eight states namely Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and 1 UT Lakshadweep
show fall in the sex ratio in rural area and 2 UTs Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli in
urban areas.

Child Population (0-6 years): Out of the child population of 158.8 million in the age group of 0-6
in the country the rural child population stands at 117.6 million and urban at 41.2 million in
2011. The Child population has declined by 5.0 million in the country – decline of 8.9 million in
rural areas and increase of 3.9 million in urban areas. The Country has observed a decline in the
percentage of child population in the age group 0-6 years by about 3 percentage points over the
decade – rural areas show a decline of about 3 % and urban a decline of 2%. The growth rate of
Child population has been -3.08% in the last decade (Rural- (-)7.04%; Urban- (+)10.32%).

Child Sex Ratio (0-6 years): Census 2011 marks a considerable fall in child sex ratio in the age
group of 0-6 years and has reached an all time low of 914 since 1961. The fall has been 13 points
(927-914) for the country during 2001-2011. In rural areas, the fall is significant – 15 points (934-
919) and in urban areas it has been 4 points (906-902) over the decade 2001-2011. Delhi (809)
has recorded the lowest and Andaman & Nicobar Islands (975) the highest child sex ratio in rural
areas. Haryana (829) has recorded the lowest and Nagaland (979) the highest child sex ratio in
urban areas.

Number of Literates: As per the Provisional Population Totals of Census 2011, the number of
literates in India was 778.5 million. Of this, 493.0 million literates were in rural areas and 285.4
million literates in urban areas. Out of an increase of 217.8 million literates over the decade
2001-2011, rural areas accounted for 131.1 million and urban areas 86.6 million. The highest
number of rural literates has been recorded in Uttar Pradesh (88.4 million). Maharashtra (40.8
million) has recorded the highest number of literates in urban areas.

Literacy Rate: The Literacy Rate of India as per the Provisional Population Totals of Census 2011
is 74.04. In rural areas the Literacy Rate is 68.91 and in urban areas it is 84.98. The decadal
change works out to 9.21 points – 10.17 points in rural areas and 5.06 points in urban areas
respectively. The male Literacy Rate which is 82.14 (Rural- 78.57; Urban-89.67) is higher than
the female Literacy Rate of 65.46 (Rural- 58.75; Urban-79.92). The increase in female literacy
rate is significantly higher in all areas i.e. total (11.79 points), rural (12.62 points) and urban
(7.06 points) in comparison to corresponding male literacy rates – total (6.88 points), rural (7.87)
and urban (3.40 points) over the decade. It is significant to note that the gap in literacy rate
among males and females has reduced to 16.68 in the country. The gap is 19.82 points in rural
areas and 9.75 points in urban areas. Kerala (92.92) ranks first in rural areas whereas Mizoram
(98.1) ranks first in urban areas. As far as Male literacy rate is concerned, Kerala (95.29) ranks
first in rural areas whereas Mizoram (98.67) ranks first in urban areas. Rajasthan (46.25) has
recorded lowest female literacy rate in rural areas, whereas, Jammu & Kashmir (70.19) has the
lowest female literacy rate in urban areas.

Economic Growth in India

Economic Development in India

India has been proved as one of the strong , fast developing, vibrant , stable, dynamic and self reliant developing countries of the World. Even under the severe impact of the global meltdown , India has achieved more than seven percent growth rate in 2011-12 after having registered growth rates of over 8 percent for three successive years. Growth rate of per capita income during the British period (1860-1945) was 0.5 percent. From the bottom level of development India was able to achieve 8.9 percent during 1951-1981, 12 percent in 1981-2001 and achieved 10.9 growth rate in 2001-2006.

As per the Central Statistical Organization ( CSO) estimate Quarterly GDP at factor cost at constant (2004-2005) prices for Q1 of 2011-12 is estimated at ` 12,26,339 crore, as against `11,38,286 crore in Q1 of 2010-11, showing a growth rate of 7.7 per cent over the corresponding quarter of previous year. Economic planning, economic reforms, heavy investments in agriculture and industrial sectors, strong banking sector, working of large number of small scale industries, presence of large number of establishments , high rate of saving and investment , good infrastructure facilities , implementation of various rural development and social development schemes by the Central and State Governments are some of the important reasons for this faster economic growth.
GDP Growth rate
Year GDP Factor Cost
(2004-05 Prices)

(` in Crores) Growth rate
( %)
2004-2005 29,67,599
2005-2006 32,49,130 9.5
2006-2007 35,64,627 9.6
2007-2008 38,93,457 9.3
2008-2009 41,62,509 6.8
2009-2010 44,93,743 8.0
2010-2011 48,79,232 8.6
(Q1 Estimate) 12,26,339 7.7

Source: Economic Survey 2010-2011,* CSO Q1 estimate Aug.2011

Growth rate of different sectors

Sectors 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12*
Agriculture,Forestry&Fishing 4.2 5.8 (-)0.1 0.4 5.4 3.9
Mining & Quarrying 7.5 3.7 1.3 6.9 6.2 1.8
Manufacturing 14.3 10.3 4.2 8.8 8.8 7.2
Electricity,Gas & Water Supply 9.3 8.3 4.9 6.4 5.1 7.9
Construction 10.3 10.7 5.4 7.0 8.0 1.2
Communication 11.7 10.7 7.6 9.7 11.0 12.8
Financing,Insurance,Real Estate &
Business Services 14.0 11.9 12.5 9.2 10.6 9.1
Community, Social &
Personal Services 2.9 6.9 12.7 11.8 5.7 5.6
GDP at Factor Cost 9.6 9.3 6.8 8.0 8.6 7.7
Source: Economic Survey 2010-2011,* CSO Q1 estimate Aug.2011

The economic activities which registered significant growth in Q1 of 2011-12 over
Q1 of 2010-11 are ‘electricity, gas & water supply’ at 7.9 per cent, ‘trade, hotels,
transport and communication’ at 12.8 per cent, ‘financing, insurance, real estate and
business services’ at 9.1 per cent. The estimated growth rates in other economic activities
are: 7.2 per cent in ‘manufacturing’, 5.6 percent in ‘community, social and personal
services’, 3.9 percent in ‘agriculture, forestry & fishing’, 1.8 percent in ‘mining &
quarrying’ and 1.2 percent in ‘construction’ during this period.

Economic Delopment in India after liberalization

Economic Development after liberalization

Local Self Governments in India

                       LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENTS


History of Local Self Governments in India


Panchayats have been existing in our country from the time immemorial. The concept of panchayats is not new to our country and there is mention of community assemblies in the Vedic texts. Around 600 B.C., the territory north of the river Ganga comprising modern day north Bihar and eastern U.P. was under the suzerainty of small republics called Janapadas. The Greek Ambassador, Megasthenes, who visited the court of Chandragupta Maurya in 303 B.C. described the City Council which governed Pataliputra – comprising six committees with 30 members. In the Chola Kingdoms, the village council played an important part in administration, arbitrated disputes and managed social affairs. The present structure of Local Self Government institutions took shape in 1688 when the British established a Municipal Corporation at Madras which was followed by creation of similar bodies at Bombay in 1726 and Calcutta in 1872. In 1872, Lord Mayo introduced elected representatives for these municipalities and this was further developed by his successor, Lord Ripon, in 1882. By the 1880s, these urban municipal bodies had a pre-dominance of elected representatives in a number of cities and towns, including Calcutta and Bombay. A corresponding effective structure for rural areas came up with the enactment of the Bengal Local Self Government Act, 1885 which led to the establishment of district local boards across the entire territory of the then Bengal province. Within a span of five years, a large number of district boards came into existence in other parts of the country, notably Bihar, Orissa, Assam and North West Province. The Minto-Morley Reforms, 1909 and the Montague Chelmsford Reforms, 1919, when Local Self Government became a transferred subject, widened the participation of people in the governing process and, by 1924-25, district boards had


were formed. This arrangement continued till the country’s Independence in 1947 and thereafter till the late 1950s. At the time of  Second Five Year Plan it recommended that the Village Panchayats should be organically linked with popular organisations and  Government appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Shri Balwantrai Mehta in 1957. The Balwantrai Mehta Committee recommended two broad directional thrusts; first that there should be administrative decentralisation for effective implementation of the development programmes and the decentralised administrative system should be placed under the control of local bodies. Second, it recommended that the CD/NES blocks

should be designed as administrative democratic units with an elected Panchayat Samiti  and  Panchayat Samiti was also to be equipped with sources of income.



The recommendations of the Committee were generally welcomed and Panchayati Raj legislations were enacted in a number of States to give effect to these recommendations. By the 1960s, Gram Panchayats covered 90% of the rural population in the country. Out of 4974 Blocks, Prakhand2  Samities were formed in 4033 blocks. Out of 399 districts in existence, 262 Zila Parishads were also constituted . By the 1970s, these bodies remained in existence without adequate functions and authority. Beginning with Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh in 1959, the Panchayati Raj system was at work in some form in all the States of the Indian Union, although the higher tier had not been set up in Kerala and Jammu & Kashmir. By end 1980s, except Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, all other States and UTs had enacted legislation for the creation of PRIs. In 14 States/ UTs, there was a three-tier system, in 4 States/UTs it was a two-tier structure and in 9 States/ UTs only one tier functioned.


In 1969, the first Administrative Reforms Commission in its report on State Administration recommended that the main executive organ of the Panchayati Raj system should be located at the district level in the form of “Zila Parishad” and not at the Block level as Panchayat Samiti. In 1977, Government formed a committee under the chairmanship of Shri Asoka Mehta to go into the working of Panchayati Raj Institutions and to suggest measures to strengthen them into effective local apparatus for decentralised planning and development of the rural areas. The committee recommended committees be formed at district level, mandal level and at village level.


Following the  recommendations of the Asoka Mehta Committee many of the States to introduce appropriate amendments in their Panchayati Raj Acts. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Gujarat adopted the new arrangement, but U.P., Bihar, Orissa, Punjab and Haryana held back.

Various committees were formed between 1978 and 1986 study the local self government institutions such as the committees under Shri C.H. Hanumantha Rao, Shri G.V.K. Rao and Shri L.M. Singhvi The next landmark in decentralised governance occurred with the 64th  and 65th  Constitutional Amendment Bills introduced in July 1989 by the Government of Shri Rajiv Gandhi.


The Bill could not be passed in the Rajya Sabha. In 1990, a combined Constitution Amendment Bill, covering both PRIs & ULBs was tabled in Parliament. With the dissolution of the Government, this Bill too lapsed. In  1992 Government introduced the 73rd  and 74th  Amendments Bill in Parliament which were passed in 1993. These introduced new Parts IX and IXA in the Indian Constitution containing Articles 243 to 243ZG. Post the 73rd  Constitutional Amendment, Panchayats have been established at three levels, the district, block and cluster of villages (Village Panchayat). The number of Village Panchayats in the country as on 1st  December, 2006 was 2,32,913; of the Intermediate Panchayats 6,094 and of the District Panchayats 537. Government had also introduced 50 percent reservation for women in the elected representatives in the local Self Governments.











Rural Local Self Governments/ Panchayats





Children in India

Children in India
India is the largest country of the children in the World. As per the provisional figures of the 2011 Census number of children below 6 years is 15,87,89,287 includes 8,29,52,135 boys and 7,58,37,152 girls. Even though sex ratio of total population is increasing, sex ratio of children below 6 years is decreasing . In 1961 there were 976 girls in between 0-6 years per thousand boys but it was reduced to 914 in the 2011.
Number of females per thousand males in India
Census Year Total Population Children (0-6)
1961 941 976
1971 930 964
1981 934 962
1991 937 945
2001 933 927
2011 940 914

Poverty on children
Poverty affects on the health and nutrition status of children. Inadequate and irregular earnings affect the quantity and quality of food that a family can consume throughout the year, its standard of living, and access and use of healthcare. The extent of poverty varies considerably between States. Data from the Planning Commission with regard to the number and percentage of population below poverty line in States shows that in 1999- 2000, among the bigger States, Orissa had the largest percentage of population below the poverty line (47.15), followed by Bihar (42.60)National data establishes that nearly 10 crores out of 15.87 crores children are in the poorest sections of the community and one half of the total poor belongs to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

Infant Mortality
Infant mortality ( the probability of a child dying before the first birthday ) expressed as a rate per thousand live births in a specified year. Infant mortality rate has been decreasing over the years. It was 192 in the year of 1971, 68 in the year of 2000 and 55 in the year of 2007. The decline in IMR is prevalent both in boys and in girls. But rate of decline is more in boys than the girls. 37 percent of all infant deaths in India are concentrated in two states , ie, in Uttar Pradesh and in Bihar.70 percent of all infants deaths are concentrated in eight states ( Bihar, UP, MP, Orissa, Rajastan, Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat). IMR is high in rural areaa ( 61) than the urban areas ( 37).

Infant Mortality Rate
Year Total
1980 114
1985 97
1990 80
1993 74
1996 72
2000 68
2003 60
2005 58
2006 57
2007 55
Source: Office of the Registrar General of India,2007, India 2011 A Reference Annual
Child Mortality
More than one fifth of the total World child deaths are happening in India. About 21 lakh children die annually in India before completing their fifth birthday – most of them due to preventable causes. According to UNICEF report about one third of the currently married women in the age-group 15-49 years have Body Mass Index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2 and
about 47 per cent girls in the age-group 15-19, have BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 . Both factors are strongly correlated with low birth weight and thus with unfavourable outcomes for the mother
(increased risk of maternal deaths) and the neonate. Only four diseases – respiratory infections,
diarrhoeal diseases, other infectious and parasitic diseases and malaria – account for
about half of under-five deaths in India. Respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases
together contribute to 36 per cent of all deaths in children under five years of age.

Low percentage of Vaccination

According to the National family Health Surveys in 2005-06 only 55 percent of children age of 12-23 months received DPT 3 vaccine, 59 percentage received measles vaccine and 44 percent received all vaccinations.
Malnutrition of child
About one third of the children ( 5.4 Crores) under the age of 5 years in India are underweight. At present, Health and Child Care services to 83 Crore Rural Indians residing across 14 lakh habitations, 6.4 lakh villages and 2.3 lakh Gram Panchayats are provided, rather independently, through a network of around 11 lakh Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) of the Women and Child Development Department and 1.47 lakh Sub‐Centres of the Health Department.
Hygiene of the children
Inadequate sanitation, unsafe water supply and poor personal hygiene are responsible for 88 per cent of childhood deaths from diarrhoea. Poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water cause intestinal worm infections, which lead to malnutrition, anaemia and retarded growth among children. A survey on well being of children and women, conducted by UNICEF in 2005,
had shown that only 47 per cent of rural children in the age-group 5-14 wash hands after
defecation. 34.2 percent of the rural children and 80.8 percent of the urban children use toilets in 2007-08.

Child education

In the age group of 5–14 years, 89.3 per cent of children were in school in 2009‐10, up from 82.4 per cent in 2004‐ 05. Further this increase was higher for girls, rising from 79.6 per cent in 2004‐05 to 87.7 per cent in 2009‐10. In the 15–19 years age group, 59.5 per cent of young people were in the educational system in 2009‐10 as compared to 46.2 per cent in 2004‐05. Once again, the increase was more for girls, from 40.3 to 54.6 per cent. In the next higher age group of 20–24 years, 22.5 per cent of boys and 12.8 per cent of girls were still in the educational system in 2009‐10 against only 14.9 and 7.6 per cent respectively in 2004‐05. In terms of numbers, about eight million children in the age-group 6-13 are out of school, about 6.7 million in rural and 1.3 million in urban areas. The average number of upper primary schools per 10 square km is 1.45 while that for primary school is 3.30. About 74 per cent of all schools have at least one female teacher. According to the ASER survey of 2009, four out of 10 government primary schools in rural India do not have separate toilets for girls. The number is lower in upper primary school (26 per cent). Out of this, 12- 15 per cent are locked and 30-40 per cent are usable. There are wide disparities in the education facilities, standards, school attendance, educational standards of children in various states of India. According to the Census 2001, only about 61 per cent of children with special needs were attending school. The Out of School Survey of the MHRD estimated that about 35 per cent of such children were not in school in 2009. Despite improvements in access and retention, the learning outcomes for a majority of children continue to be an area of serious concern. Several studies suggest that nearly half the children in Grade 5 are unable to read a Grade 2 text.

Child labour

The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act was enacted in 1986, to specifically address the situation of child labour. However, this law is inadequate both in its understanding and the framework that it provides for dealing with the problem of child labour.As per the criteria laid by UNICEF about 28 million children in the age-group 5-14 are working for their livelihood in India. But as per the Census 2001, only five per cent children were estimated to be working in India. Among the major states, Gujarat has the highest proportion of children working (32 percent) followed by Rajasthan (20 per cent). Kerala has only three per cent of children reported to be working. The children from the poor families are working more .

Child Marriage

The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 (CMRA) prescribes a minimum age of 21 years for males and 18 years for females. In India, the percentage of women in the age group of 20-24 years who married before attaining the minimum legal marriageable age of 18 is 43 per cent . In Bihar 68.2 percent, in Rajastan 57.6 percent and in Jharkhand 55.7 percent of women married before attaining 18 years.


Available estimates of HIV/AIDS show that there were about 23.95 lakh people living
with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) in 2008‐09 in India. Of these 38.7 per cent are women and 4.4 per cent

Caste discrimination against children

The Government has adopted a policy of affirmative action towards addressing issues of socially backward groups, such as the Scheduled Castes/Tribes and the Other Backward Classes as well as the girl child. Despite these, discrimination occurs in various forms. children born in the categories of Scheduled Castes/Tribes and Backward Classes including religious minorities start life with severe handicaps.

public sector india

Central Public Sector Enterprises

At the time of independence there were only few Central Public Sector Enterprises like the Railways, the Posts and Telegraphs, the Port Trusts the Ordinance and Aircraft Factories in India. The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 gave the public sector an important role in the Indian economy. There were 246 CPSE under the administrative control of various ministries/ departments as on March 31, 2009. The total investment (paid-up capital plus long-term loans) in all the CPSEs together stood at Rs 5,28,951 crore as in end March 2009. The major share in this investment belonged to the service sector (46.1 per cent) followed by electricity (26.2 per cent), manufacturing (18.1 per cent) and mining (8.8 per cent). A great deal of investment in CPSEs is being made through internal resources rather than through investment from outside. Of the total, 158 CPSEs made net profit and 54 net loss in 2008-09.

Year Number of
CPSU Turn Over Net Profit
1991-92 237 1,33,906 2,356
2001-02 231 4,47,529 25,978
2005-06 226 8,37,295 69,536
2006-07 217 9,64,410 69,536
2007-08 247 10,94,484
2008-09 246 12,63,405 98652
2009-10 249

Central Public Sector Enterprises in India

———————————— Box —————————————————

Mahanavaratnas – 4

Government of India decided to grant Mahanavaratna status to four Central Public Sector Enterprises in December 2009. Mahanavaratnas are National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Oil and Natural gas Commission ( ONGC), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) ans Steel Authority of India Limited ( SAIL).

Navaratnas – 14

In July 1997 , the Government had identified 9 Central Public Sector Enterprises as Navaratnas. Later 9 CPSE were added and four units were elevated to Mahanavaratnas. There enterprises have comparative advantage and potential to emerge as global giants. These CPSEs have been given enhanced autonomy and delegation of powers to incur capital expenditure, to enter into technology joint ventures, to introduce organizational restructuring, to create and to wind up below board level posts, to raise capital from domestic and International market, to establish financial joint ventures and to wholly owned subsidiaries.

In October 1977 the Government of India had also decided to grant mininavaratna status to provide enhanced autonomy and delegation of financial powers to some other profit making companies subject to certain eligibility conditions and guidelines to make them efficient and competitative.

Agriculture growth rate in India


No any other sector is so important as agriculture sector in a country like India. Agriculture sector is very important to India in many respects. It provides food and nutritional security, providing employment to largest sections of the community , providing raw materials to the majority of industries and depend large sections for their livelihood , exporting agriculture items and contributes substantial share in the GDP. Agriculture and allied sectors contribute nearly 14.2 percent of the Gross National product of India ,employees 58 percent of the Indian total workforce and provides 10.2 percent of the total exports. India faces a greater challenge, since with only 2.3% share in world’s total land area, it has to ensure food security of its population which is about 17.5% of world population. Indian agriculture has achieved tremendous growth during the last 60 years. GDP of Agriculture and allied sectors was ` 692499 Crores ( at 2004-05 prices) in the year 2010-11 of India has made remarkable progress in agricultural output, productivity and cultivating area since independence. India is the largest producer of milk, fruit, cashew nut, coconut and in tea in the World , second largest producer of wheat, vegetables, sugar and fish and the third largest producer of tobacco and rice.

Declining share of Agriculture in the GNP

Year Share of Agriculture in %

1950-51 55
1970-71 44
1990-91 31
2000-01 26
2008-09 15.7
2010-11 14.2
Source: Economic Survey 2010-11 and Indian Economy, Ruddar Datt
and K.P.M Sundharam.

Agriculture Growth rate

The agriculture sector (including allied activities) recorded an average growth of 2.87 per cent against the Plan target of 4 per cent per annum during the first four years of the current Five Year Plan. In 2007-08 the agriculture sector had achieved an impressive growth of 5.8 per cent. Agriculture-sector growth fell into the negative zone of (-) 0.1 per cent in 2008-09, although this was a year of a record 234.47 million tonnes food production. In 2009-10 the growth marginally recovered to 0.4 per cent primarily due to a good rabi crop. The agriculture-sector is expected to grow at 5.4 per cent as per the 2010-11 advance estimates. In order to achieve the Plan target of average 4 per cent per year, the agriculture sector needs to grow at 8.5 per cent during 2011-12. Agriculture growth rate is not steady and uniform due to the monsoon in addition to other factors. The per capita availability of foodgrains has been risen from 350 grms in 1951 to 500 grms in 2008-09. Compare to other nations agriculture productivity and growth rate is less in India.
Year Growth rate in %
1951 –61 3.3
1961 -71 2.2
1971- 81 1.7
1981- 91 3.9
1991- 01 2.8
2001- 07 2.2
2007- 08 5.8
2008- 09 (-)0.1
2009 – 10 0.4
2010 – 11 5.4

Agriculture Growth rate since 1950-51

Source: Economic Survey 2010-11 and Indian Economy, Ruddar Datt

and K.P.M Sundharam.

Agriculture Production in India 2010-11
( Million Tonnes)

Crop 2009-10 2010-11 %Change
in 2010-11
over 2009-10
Rice 89.09 94.01 5.52
Wheat 80.80 81.47 0.83
Coarse Cereals 33.55 40.08 19.46
Pulses 14.66 16.51 12.62
Total Food grains 218.11 232.07 6.40
Oilseeds 24.88 27.85 11.94
Sugarcane 292.30 336.70 15.19
Cotton 24.22 33.93 40.09
Jute and Mesta 11.82 10.08 (-)14.72

From 2005-06 to 2008-09, foodgrains production registered a rising trend and touched a record level of 234.47 million tonnes in 2008-09. The production of Foodgrains declined to 218.11 million tonnes during 2009-10 (final estimates) due to the long spells of drought in various parts of the country in 2009. The productivity of almost all the crops suffered considerably, which led to decline in their production in 2009. As per the second advance estimates released by Ministry of Agriculture on 9.2.2011, production of foodgrains during 2010-11 is estimated at 232.07 million tonnes compared to 218.11 million tonnes last year . This is only marginally below the record production of 234.47 million tonnes of foodgrains in 2008-09. India is likely to achieve record production of wheat (81.47 million tonnes), pulses (16.51 million tonnes) and cotton (33.93 million bales of 170 kg. each) during 2011-12.


Agriculture productivity is less in India

Yield rate of Food grains in different countries
( Kg per hectare)

Name of country Rice Wheat
US 7694 2825
China 6265 4455
India 3124 2619
Nigeria 1440 1127

Source: FAO


Inter State Variation in Agriculture growth rate

Growth rates of National Domestic Product (NSDP)
from Agriculture

(States Ranked by % of Rainfed Area)

States Growth rate in
NSDP Agriculture
1995-96 to 2004-05
Punjab 2.16
Haryana 1.98
Uttar Pradesh 1.87
Tamil Nadu (-)1.36
West Bengal 2.67
Bihar 3.51
Andhra Pradesh 2.69
Gujarat 0.48
Rajasthan 0.30
Orissa 0.11
Madhya Pradesh (-)0.23
Karnataka 0.03
Maharashtra 0.10
Kerala (-)3.54
Assam 0.95
All-India 1.85

Source: National Accounts Statistics, (State Series) Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation,New Delhi and Planning Commission report on Agriculture


Major crops in India

West Bengal – Highest Rice producing State

Rice is the main grain crop of India. India ranks second in the world in production of rice.
Rice is cultivated in areas having annual average rainfall of 125 cm and average temperature of 23 degree Celsius. During the 1980s the growth in area in rice was marginal at 0.41 per cent but growth in production and yield was above 3 per cent. From 2000-01 to 2009-10 the situation changed with growth in area turning negative and in production and yield standing at 1.59 per cent and 1.61 per cent respectively. Major rice cultivating areas are north east India, eastern and western coastal regions and river basin of Ganga. Rice cultivation is highest in West Bengal. West Bengal, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are the major rice producing states. Besides, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Haryana, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Assam and Maharashtra also produce rice.

Uttar Pradesh – Highest Wheat Producing State

India is the second wheat producing nations of the World. Wheat is the second major crop in India. It is cultivated in the Rabi season. Wheat is cultivated in areas with mean annual rainfall of 75 cm and fertile soil. During 2000-01 to 2009-10 the growth in area in wheat was 1.21 per cent and in production and yield was 1.89 per cent and 0.68 per cent respectively. The highest quantity of wheat in the country is in Uttar Pradesh. 35 % of wheat is produced only in Uttar Pradesh. Punjab is the second largest wheat producing state in the country. Other leading wheat producing states are Madhya Pradesh and Haryana.

Coarse Cereals

In 2009-10 the production of coarse cereals constitute only 15 per cent of the total food grains production of India. The area under coarse cereals has shown a decline over the years whereas their yield has shown significant improvement despite decrease in area in all the major coarse cereals except maize. The growth rate in area of total coarse cereals, in both the periods (1980-81 to 1989-90 and 2000-01 to 2009- 10) was negative reflecting either shift to other crops or relatively dry area remaining fallow. In all the major coarse cereals there was negative growth in area during both the periods except for maize, which recorded a growth rate of 2.98 per cent in the 2000- 01 to 2009-10 period. However, growth in production and yield for coarse grains which was 0.40 per cent and 1.62 per cent respectively in the 1980s improved significantly to 2.46 per cent and 3.97 per cent respectively in the 2000-01 to 2009-10 period . This increase is primarily driven by maize and bajra. Special effort is required to promote production and productivity of all coarse cereals to ensure food security.

Jowar is more in Maharashtra

Jowar is also an important food crop of India. This crop is grown where the climate is hot and dry with 45 cm. Out of the total area under jowar cultivation inIndia , 50% is cultivated in Maharashtra. Whereas out of the total production of Jowar in the nation, 52% is from Maharashtra. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu also produce jowar.

Madhya Pradesh – Leader in Pulses production

Pulses are the main source of protein for a large section of population in India. Pulses are grown in dry climate region in India. These crops provide nitrogen to the soil. Gram and
Tur are the major contributors to the total production of pulses in the country. The major pulses grown in the country are chickpea, pigeon pea (tur), moong bean, urd bean, field pea, and lentils. Gram and tur are the major contributors to total pulses production in the country. During the 1980s there was negative growth in total area under pulses and growth in production and yield was 1.52 per cent and 1.61 per cent respectively. During 2000-01 to 2009-10, whereas area and production have grown by 1.17 per cent and 2.61 per cent respectively, growth in yield at 1.64 per cent has remained at about the same level reflecting that the growth in production is primarily because of increase in area . Madhya Pradesh is the first in pulses follows by Uttarpradesh in pulses production in India. It produces 24% of the total pulses in the country. It is followed by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Area and Production of Pulses
Year Area in
Million Hectares Production in

2006-07 23.19 14.20
2007-08 23.63 14.76
2008-09 22.09 14.57
2009-10 23.16 14.66
2010-11 23.16 16.51

Source: Annual Report 2009-10, Dept. of Agriculture, GOI


Oilseeds are raised mostly under rain-fed conditions and are important for the livelihood of small and marginal farmers in the arid and semi arid areas of the country. Indian agro-ecological conditions in the country are favourable for growing nine annual oilseeds, which include seven edible oilseeds, i.e., groundnut, rapeseed mustard, soybean, sunflower, sesamum, safflower, and niger, and two non-edible oilseeds
i.e., castor and linseed.

Area and Production of Oilseeds
Year Area in
Million Hectares Production in
2006-07 26.15 24.28
2007-08 26.69 29.75
2008-09 27.55 27.72
2009-10 26.75 24.88
2010-11 26.75 27.85
Source: Annual Report 2009-10, Dept. of Agriculture, GOI

Jute is highest in West Bengal

India is a major producer of jute in the world. West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa are major producer of jute. Uttar Pradesh and Assam also cultivate jute to a small extent. Jute production was 95 Lac bales during the year 2009-10.


A significant improvement in yield has resulted in an increase in growth rate of cotton
production from 2.80 per cent during the 1980s to 13.58 per cent per annum during 2000-10.Cotton production is estimated at 223.18 lakh bales during 2009-10 against 222.76 lakh bales during 2008-09. The yield of cotton went up from 307 kg/ha in 2003-04 to 419 kg/ha in 2008-09 (fourth advance estimates). The compound growth rate index of yield increased significantly from – 0.41 per cent during the1990s to 13.64 per cent during 2001 to 2008. However, the growth in index of area moderated but remained positive. The combined effect on the index of production was an increase in growth from 2.29 per cent during the 1990s to 15.48 per cent during 2001-08 pesticides, micronutrients and irrigation. Each of these plays a role in determining yield level and in turn augmentation in the level of production. In order to increase the production and productivity of cotton, a centrally sponsored scheme of Mini Mission-II of the Technology Mission on Cotton is under implementation in 13 States, i.e., Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Tripura

Karnataka – highest Coffee producing state
India ranks sixth in coffee production after Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, and Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation was started in India in the year of 1830 in Karnaka by the Britishers. It produces both Arabica and Robusta varieties of coffee in a proportion of 33:67. Coffee is cultivated in about 3.99 lakh ha mainly confined to the southern States of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, which form the traditional coffee tracts. To a lesser extent, coffee is also grown in non-traditional areas like Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and the north-eastern States, the main emphasis being tribal development and afforestation. Coffee is predominantly an export oriented commodity in India with 65 to 70 per cent of the production being exported, thereby earning considerable foreign exchange. For the past five to six years, the productivity in India has been around 800 kg/ha. The production of coffee stood at 2,89,600 MT in 2009-10. For the year 2010-11, the post monsoon crop estimate is placed at 2,99,000 MT. Karnataka and Kerala are the major produces of Coffee in India. Production has been from 1,88,93 MT in 1950-51 to 3,08,000 MT in 2010-11

Coffee production in India

Year Ares in Hectares Production in
1950 – 51 92523 18893
1960-61 120320 68169
1970-71 135463 110231
1980-81 208269 118646
1990-91 270821 169726
2000-01 346716 301200
2006-07 381085 288000
2007-08 388195 262000
2008-09 394352 262300
2009-10 399683 289600
2010-11 399801 299000

Kerala – leader in Rubber production

India is the fourth largest producer of natural rubber (NR) with a share of 8.5 per cent in world production in 2009. Rubber is produced from latex that secrets through the trunks of the trees. Hot, humid climate with well drained soil is suitable for rubber cultivation. Rubber is planted in the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Kerala state has highest production of rubber. More than 90 percent of the rubber is being produced by Kerala. The projected production and consumption of Natural Rubber (NR) for the year 2010-11 are 893,000 tonnes at a growth of 7.4% and 978,000 tonnes at 5.0% growth respectively. The projected import and export for the year 2010-11 are 70,000 tonnes and 50,000 tonnes respectively. Production of Natural Rubber (NR) in the country during 2009-10 was 831,400 tonnes compared to 864,500 tonnes during 2008-09 registering a negative growth of 3.8%. Productivity also declined to 1784 kg/ha during 2009-10 from 1867 kg/ha during 2008-09. The production of NR in 2010-11 is projected at 851,000 tonnes, which is an increase of 2.4 per cent over 2009-10.


The compound growth rate of area, production, and yield of sugarcane during 2000-01 to 2009-10 has declined compared to the 1980s. The decline in growth rate of yield during this period is because of relatively higher decline in growth rate of production compared to decline in growth rate of area . Concerted effort is required to increase yield rate of this crop to avoid fluctuations in production and spikes in price of sugar. The production of sugarcane during 2010-11 is estimated at 324.91 million tones (1st Advance Estimates) against 277.75 million tonnes achieved during 2009-10.

India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world. Cultivation of Tea started India in the year of 1823. Tea is grown in 16 States inIndia. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala account for about 96 per cent of the total production. The teas originating from Darjeeling, Assam, and the Nilgiris are well known for their distinctive flavours the world over. More than fifty percent of the tea is being produced in Assam. Tea production in India during the year 2009-10 has been estimated at 991.18 million kg against 972.77 million kg achieved in 2008-09.

Tea production in India

Year Production in
Million Kgs.
2002-03 845.97
2003-04 878.65
2004-05 906.84
2005-06 948.94
2006-07 973.07
2007-08 987.02
2008-09 972.77
2009-10 991.18
Source: Tea Board and Economic Survey, 2010

India is the third largest coconut producing country having an area of about 1.90 million hectares under the crop. Annual production is about 1014 million nuts with an average of 5231 nuts per hectare. The major coconut growing states are kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, A.P, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa, Assam, Goa, Daman andDiu, Lakshadeep, Gujarat. Kerala tops in production accounting 39 percent of total production in the country. Kerala is the largest producer of coconuts in India producing 6050 Million Nuts followed by Tamilnadu (5430 Million Nuts), Karnataka (1630 Million Nuts), and Andhra Pradesh (1330 Million Nuts) as they have taken 2nd, 3rd and 4th position respectively. Central Kerala town Kochi is a major trading center for coconut oil and copra. Giving focus on productivity, Tamil Nadu comes in 1st position (14495 Nuts/ha.), West Bengal in 2nd position (14307 Nuts/ha.) and Andhra Pradesh in 3 rd position (12629 Nuts/ha.). Kerala being a major coconut producing state its productivity is not so high (6951 Nuts/ha.).
Kerala has the largest area under Coconut in India at .87 million hectares covering 45% of the total area under Coconut in India. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu follow closely covering a combined area of another 40%. This is due to the long coastline in these states which is suitable for growing coconut palm trees.

All India Area, Production and yield of Coconut
( Area in Million Hectares, Production in ‘00Million nuts and yield Nuts/Hectare)
Year Area Production Yield
2000-01 1.84 125.97 6847
2001-02 1.93 129.63 6709
2002-03 1.92 125.35 6337
2003-04 1.93 121.78 6310
2004-05 1.94 128.33 6615
2005-06 1.95 148.11 7608
2006-07 1.94 158.40 8179
2007-08 1.90 147.44 7747
2008-09 1.90 101.48 5231


All-India Area, Production and Yield of

Area – ‘000 Hectares
Production – ‘000 Tonnes
Yield – Kg/Hectare Area Production Yield Yield
1997-98 181.5 57.3 316
1998-99 239.8 75.7 316
1999-00 195.6 59.0 302
2000-01 213.9 63.7 298
2001-02 219.4 62.4 285
2002-03 224.4 71.7 320
2003-04 233.4 73.2 314
2004-05 228.3 73.0 320
2005-06 260.2 92.9 357
2006-07 246.0 69.0 281
2007-08 197.0 47.1 239
2008-09 238.7 47.4 199
Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics for data till 2007-08 and
National Horticulture Board M/o Agriculture for 2008-09.

Cardamom is known as the “Queen of Spices”. India was the leader in cardamom production till 2000. In 2007-08 India’s cardamom production was 10,000 MT. Kerala is the top cardamom producing state in India. Kerala produces 70 % , Karnataka produces 20 % and Tamilnadu produces remaining 10 % of the total production. India consumes 90 % of production. Cardamom is exporting to Saudi Arabia, Japan, Malaysia, United Kingdom and Kuwait.
All-India Area, Production and Yield of
Area – ‘000 Hectares
Production – ‘000 Tonnes
Yield – Kg/Hectare
Year Area Production Yield
1 2 3 4
1997-98 94.3 11.7 123
1998-99 85.0 9.0 106
1999-00 84.8 10.7 126
2000-01 92.4 14.5 157
2001-02 91.6 15.2 166
2002-03 88.5 15.4 174
2003-04 95.6 16.7 175
2004-05 95.2 16.9 178
2005-06 95.8 17.8 186
2006-07 98.2 15.7 160
2007-08 81.8 13.4 164
2008-09 92.0 15.5 168

Western state of Gujarat and southern Andhra Pradesh are the top two groundnut producers of India and initial sowing reports from the states show a drop in area.

Sweet Potato, Tapioca and Sunhemp

All-India Area, Production and Yield of
Sweet Potato,Tapioca and Sunhemp.

Area – ‘000 Hectares
Production – ‘000 Tonnes
Yield – Kg/Hectare
Year Area Production Yield
Sweet Potato
2002-03 104.2 956.2 9177
2003-04 106.4 937.8 8814
2004-05 107.2 932.5 8699
2005-06 106.8 955.1 8943
2006-07 106.6 963.7 9040
2007-08 106.0 942.6 8892
2008-09 124.0 1120.0 9032
2002-03 189.8 4827.6 25435
2003-04 219.0 5945.3 27147
2004-05 229.4 5854.8 25522
2005-06 242.4 7620.2 31436
2006-07 256.4 8429.0 32871
2007-08 253.5 8722.4 34415
2008-09 280.0 9623.0 34368
2002-03 45.9 18.2 397
2003-04 37.0 24.3 657
2004-05 35.4 25.1 709
2005-06 34.1 24.7 724
2006-07 33.2 19.6 590
2007-08 31.5 18.8 597
2008-09 27.6 16.4 595
Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics for data till 2007-08 and
National Horticulture Board M/o Agriculture for 2008-09.

Turmeric, Chillies and Coriander

All-India Area, Production and Yield of Turmeric, Chillies and Coriander.

Area – ‘000 Hectares
Production – ‘000 Tonnes
Yield – Kg/Hectare
Year Area Production Yield

2002-03 150.1 522.2 3479
2003-04 150.1 564.9 3763
2004-05 158.7 718.1 4525
2005-06 172.0 851.7 4952
2006-07 178.5 786.8 4408
2007-08 175.3 794.4 4532
2008-09 181.1 821.2 4535
2002-03 827.4 894.6 1081
2003-04 774.3 1235.7 1596
2004-05 737.5 1185.5 1607
2005-06 654.0 1014.6 1551
2006-07 763.2 1242.1 1627
2007-08 805.8 1297.9 1611
2008-09 779.1 1269.9 1630
2002-03 285.8 174.0 609
2003-04 483.5 389.8 806
2004-05 348.9 248.0 711
2005-06 340.4 223.4 656
2006-07 320.8 233.2 727
2007-08 384.2 309.6 806
2008-09 396.9 242.1 610
Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics for data till 2007-08 and
National Horticulture Board M/o Agriculture for 2008-09.

——————————————— Box ———————————————
Crops and major producing states

Crops States
Bajra (millets) Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan
Barley U.P., Bihar, Haryana
West Bengal and South India.
Cardamom Kerala , Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
Cashewnut Kerala

Chillies West Bengal, , Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra
Coffee Karnataka, Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills) and Kerala

Cotton: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Maharashtra
Gram and Pulses: U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka
Groundnut:. Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh
Hemp:. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and U.P
Jute: Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa

Linseed: Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P., Maharashtra and West Bengal.

Maize: U.P., Bihar and the Punjab.
Mustard and Rape-seed (Sarson): U.P., West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar and Orissa.

Poppy (opium plant): U.P., Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir.

Pepper Kerala and West Bengal
Rice Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa
Rubber: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
Saffron: Jammu and Kashmir
Silk: Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal and Assam

Sugarcane: U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra
Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri Hills), Uttarkhand (Dehradun) and Himachal Pradesh (Kangra Hills).

Tobacco: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, U.P., West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Wheat U.P., Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. To some extent in Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra

——————————————— Box ———————————————

Operational holdings size declining

According to agriculture Census 2005-06 on number and area of operational holdings published in 2010-11 the total number of operational holdings in the country has increased from 120 million in 2000-01 to 129 million in 2005- 06 and operated area has decreased from 159.44 million ha. in 2000-01 to 158.32 million ha. in 2005-06. The average size of the operational holding has declined to 1.23 ha. in 2005-06 as compared to 1.33 ha. in 2000-01 at All India level. The number of female operational holders has increased from 10.83 percent in 2000-01 to 11.70 percent in 2005-06 with corresponding figures of 8.39 percent and 9.33 percent in the operated area. Small and marginal holdings (below 2.00 ha.) taken together constituted 83.29 percent of the total number of holdings in 2005-06 against 81.80 in 2000-01 with operated area of 41.14 percent 2005-06 as against 38.86 percent in 2000-01. Semi-medium and medium operational holdings (2.00 ha. – 10.00 ha.) in 2005- 06 were 15.86 percent of the total number of holdings with operated area of 47.04 percent. Large holdings (10.00 ha. & above) were 0.85 percent of total number of holdings in 2005-06 with share of 11.82 percent in the operated area as against 1.03 percent and 13.21 percent respectively in 2000-01 Agriculture Census.